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The Equine Hindlimb Proximal Suspensory Ligament: an Assessment of Health and Function by Means of Its Damping Harmonic Oscillator Properties, Measured Using an Acoustic Myography System: a New Modality Study

Authored by: Jillian Costello Chavers, A. Kent Allen, Waqas Ahmed, Lene Høeg Fuglsang-Damgaard, Adrian P. Harriso on Thursday, September 13, 2018

Enhanced, objective systems for evaluation of the proximal suspensory ligament are needed to hasten appropriate diagnosis and treatment of injury. This study compared the in vivo acoustic signals generated by healthy and injured hindlimb proximal suspensory ligaments (PSLs) in horses and determined if an acoustic myography (AMG) system was an acceptable tool to aid in diagnosis. Complete lameness evaluations were performed on 96 horses either with a history or suspicion of hindlimb lameness. Acoustic myography signals were acquired with the aid of a CURO from the hindlimbs after a moving evaluation and before additional procedures. For all horses with hindlimb lameness, diagnostic analgesia and appropriate imaging were performed to reach a causative diagnosis for the lameness. The signals obtained were analyzed by blinded evaluators via CURO algorithms and scored from 0 to 10 (poor to optimal). Eighty-five horses in total provided adequate diagnostic data. Of these, 15 (17.7%) horses were clinically sound, 48 (56.5%) horses had clinical evidence of PSL injury, 4 (4.7%) horses were recovering from prior PSL injuries, and 18 (21.1%) horses had another cause of hindlimb lameness. There was a significant difference (P > .001) in the CURO score between horses with evidence of PSL injury and all other groups. Correlations showed that PSLs were healthy with a score >5 (60% of SOUND horses; 87% of PSL-TREATED), had low-level injury at scores 2.5e4.5, and severe injuries at scores <2. It is concluded that AMG is a promising diagnostic tool to detect injuries of the proximal suspensory ligament in horses. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

The Efficacy of Intermittent Long-term Bell Boot Application for the Correction of Muscle Asymmetry in Equine Subjects

Authored by: Anne-Mette Jensen, Waqas Ahmed, Vibeke S. Elbrønd, Adrian P. Harrison* on Monday, May 21, 2018

It has been proposed that manipulating proprioceptive signals of the equine distal limb as part of a rehabilitation process in cases of musculoskeletal pain or neurologic deficits can be used to correct postural control and restore normal motor programs. This trial has examined the effect of treatment with a light-weight and loose-fitting bell boot (82 g) on an imbalance of muscle gluteus superficialis function in horses as measured using acoustic myography (AMG). Eight horses were trained over a 60-minute period every 3 days for 6 weeks, a protocol based on preliminary findings. Acoustic myography measurements, recording the coordination, spatial and temporal summation of muscle contractions, were made at the start (baseline) and at the finish (week 6) after a warmup period and following a set procedure of physical activity.Walking, trotting, and cantering during a left-hand circle at the start of the trial revealed a slight but significant asymmetry between the left and right hind limb muscle, which improved successfully after 6 weeks of proprioception training. Data for the right-hand circle, which revealed no significant asymmetry, during walk, trot, and canter at the start, showed no change after 6 weeks of training at the walk and trot but developed an imbalance during cantering, the result of overcompensation. This study demonstrates that functional musculoskeletal asymmetry measured during periods of activity can not only be accurately detected using AMG but it also reveals an association between the program of proprioceptive training adopted and an improvement in muscular imbalance.

Non-invasive Assessment of Lameness in Horses with Dorsal Spinous Process Impingement “Kissing spine”: A Case Study.

Authored by: Adrian P Harrison, Anja Jensen, Karoline Holst Riis, and Kiwa Riis-Olesen on Monday, January 1, 2018

The assessment of muscle function in connection with an injury or during recovery is of paramount importance in the veterinary field, where animals often attempt to conceal their pain and impaired mobility. In recent years, such techniques as accelerometry. bioimpedance analysis and mechanomyography more precisely referred to as acoustic myography have been used for the assessment of human muscular problems. However, these techniques have yet to be applied routinely in the veterinary world, and have not been used in connection with injury in horses. The combined use of these novel and non-invasive techniques was applied to the case of a 6-year-old Danish Warmblood mare that presented with recurring and shifting lameness. Acoustic myography, assessing both the amplitude and frequency of active muscles, was employed to locate the specific area of muscle injury. Thereafter this specific region was assessed in terms of its bioimpedance properties, assessing muscle resistance (R) and reactance (Xc) and confirming a regional loss of muscle mass and cellular integrity compared with the contralateral site. Finally, accelerometry was used to reveal the effects of the injury on the gait, as measured using such parameters as the stride interval, strike force and stance interval. It is concluded that acoustic myography, bioimpedance and accelerometry when used in combination, provide a useful set of diagnostic tools for the rapid and non-invasive determination of muscular injury in the horse.

Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy Increases Growth Factor Release from Equine Platelet-Rich Plasma In Vitro

Authored by: Kathryn A. Seabaugh1,2*, Merrilee Thoresen2,3 and Steeve Giguère2 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, on Friday, December 1, 2017

Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) are common treatments for soft tissue injuries in horses. Shockwave triggers cell specific responses to promote healing. Growth factors released from PRP also promote healing. It has been hypothesized that greater growth factor release would amplify the healing process. The combination of ESWT and PRP could promote healing in injured tendons and ligaments in the horse. The objective of this study was to determine if application of shockwaves to PRP samples increases the concentration of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and platelet-derived growth factor ββ (PDGF-ββ) released from the platelets in vitro.

Tenogenically induced allogeneic Peripheral Blood Mesenchymal stem cells in allogeneic Plateletrich Plasma: 2-Year Follow-up after Tendon or ligament Treatment in horses

Authored by: Charlotte Beerts1, Marc Suls2, Sarah Y. Broeckx1, Bert Seys2, Aurélie Vandenberghe1, Jeroen Declercq on Tuesday, September 26, 2017

Poor healing of tendon and ligament lesions often results in early retirement of sport horses. Therefore, regenerative therapies are being explored as potentially promising treatment for these injuries. In this study, an intralesional injection was performed with allogeneic tenogenically induced mesenchymal stem cells and platelet-rich plasma 5–6 days after diagnosis of suspensory ligament (SL) (n = 68) or superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) (n = 36) lesion.

NeoVet + Osphos heals saucer fracture in MC III in TB stallion

Authored by: Case Report from Dr. Mark Christin, DVM on Wednesday, August 23, 2017


This horse was in training as a two-year-old in southern California. After working 3/8 of a mile for the second time he returned moderately shin sore bilaterally. At the same time of the work, a blunt trauma injury to the right hind was found and diagnosed as a sequestrum of MC lll. Surgery to remove the sequestrum was performed and he was turned out for 3-4 months. He returned to the track and was working well until his second 1/2-mile work. After the work, he returned to the barn lame on the left fore. Radiographs showed a saucer fracture of dorso distal MC lll (slightly lateral). According to a board certified surgeon, who was brought in to provide a second opinion, that without surgery the fracture would most likely reoccur or never heal completely due to poor vascular supply in this area. The horse was sent to a rehab facility in my practice after a three-week period of “let down” at the track.

Three-dimensional kinematics of the equine metacarpophalangeal joint using x-ray reconstruction of moving morphology – a pilot study

Authored by: Bronwen A. Childs; Brenna R. Pugliese; Cristina T. Carballo; Daniel L. Miranda; Elizabeth L. Brainer on Saturday, April 1, 2017

X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM) uses biplanar videoradiography and computed tomography (CT) scanning to capture three-dimensional (3D) bone motion. In XROMM, morphologically accurate 3D bone models derived from CT are animated with motion from videoradiography, yielding a highly accurate and precise reconstruction of skeletal kinematics. We employ this motion analysis technique to characterize metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ) motion in the absence and presence of protective legwear in a healthy pony. Our in vivo marker tracking precision was 0.09 mm for walk and trot, and 0.10 mm during jump down exercises. We report MCPJ maximum extension (walk: –27.70 ± 2.78° [standard deviation]; trot: –33.84 ± 4.94°), abduction/adduction (walk: 0.04 ± 0.24°; trot: –0.23 ± 0.35°) and external/ internal rotations (walk: 0.30 ± 0.32°; trot: –0.49 ± 1.05°) indicating that the MCPJ in this pony is a stable hinge joint with negligible extra-sagittal rotations. No substantial change in MCPJ maximum extension angles or vertical ground reaction forces (GRFv) were observed upon application of legwear during jump down exercise. Neoprene boot application yielded –65.20 ± 2.06° extension (GRFv = 11.97 ± 0.67 N/kg) and fleece polo wrap application yielded –64.23 ± 1.68° extension (GRFv = 11.36 ± 1.66 N/kg), when compared to naked control (-66.11 ± 0.96°; GRFv = 12.02 ± 0.53 N/kg). Collectively, this proof of concept study illustrates the benefits and practical limitations of using XROMM to document equine MCPJ kinematics in the presence and absence of legwear.

Owl Manor Veterinary Case Study – Intralesional injection of Pro-Stride into deep digital flexor tendon and distal interphalangeal joint of 9-year old hunter/jumper horse

Authored by: Dr. Natalie Zdimal, Circle Oak Equine on Tuesday, March 14, 2017

Case Study Description: The patient was a 9-year old warmblood gelding used in the hunter/jumper discipline. Diagnosis Dr. Zdimal first examined the horse at a show on Sept. 20, 2017. He was 3+/5 left front lame and 2/5 right front lame. The left front lameness blocked to a PD (2 minutes) and the right front lameness then became more pronounced at 3/5. The patient was diagnosed with left front, moderate, regional deep digital flexor tendinopathy, primarily characterized as a core to dorsal margin lesion, with associated moderate navicular bursitis. Bilateral, mild navicular degeneration and right front, mild proximal interphalangeal osteoarthritis was found using MRI on September 22, 2017. Owl Manor Veterinary Product Used: Pro-Stride APS System

Phototherapy for Improvement of Performance and Exercise Recovery: Comparison of 3 Commercially Available Devices

Authored by: Thiago De Marchi, MSc, PT*; Vinicius Mazzochi Schmitt†; Carla Danu´bia da Silva Fabro*; Larissa Lope on Tuesday, February 28, 2017

Phototherapy for Improvement of Performance and Exercise Recovery: Comparison of 3 Commercially Available Devices


Thiago De Marchi, MSc, PT*; Vinicius Mazzochi Schmitt†; Carla Danu´bia da Silva Fabro*; Larissa Lopes da Silva*; Juliane Sene*; Olga Tairova, PhD†; Mirian Salvador, PhD*

Preliminary Evaluation of the Effect of Acupuncture on Acoustic Myographic Recordings in Five Sport Horses

Authored by: Esther M. Millares DVM, Helga Bollingberg-Soerensen, Sarah S. Le Jeune DVM, DACVS, DACVSMR on Wednesday, February 1, 2017

The objective of this prospective controlled study was to assess the effect of acupuncture (ACU) on acoustic myography (AM) of the middle gluteal muscle at the walk and trot in healthy sport horses (n=5). Acoustic myographic sensors were placed on the surface of the right and left middle gluteal muscles. Recordings were taken while the horses were walked and trotted in hand, in a straight line, before and immediately after ACU treatments, and 48 hours and one week afterwards. Acoustic myographic data was used to calculate an acoustic myographic (EST) score. Due to the small number of horses in this pilot study, data was presented descriptively. Gait abnormalities and sensitivity at routine ACU points were recorded at each session. All horses tolerated the procedure well and did not exhibit any signs of lameness at any time. Sensitivity at ACU points was present initially in 3 horses and was abolished immediately after ACU in all of them. All horses had an increased EST score after 48 hours, of which 3 had a persistent increase for 1 week afterwards, suggesting a greater speed of activation of muscle fibers after ACU. AM is a non-invasive technique, which is well tolerated and easily performed in a routine clinical setting. This small pilot study suggests a change in acoustic myographic data after ACU treatment but this will need to be confirmed in a greater number of horses.

Comparison of Serum Amyloid A in Horses With Infectious and Noninfectious Respiratory Diseases

Authored by: Molly Viner a , Melissa Mazan b , Daniela Bedenice b , Samantha Mapes a , Nicola Pusterla a,* on Tuesday, September 13, 2016

The acute phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA) has been shown to be a useful inflammatory parameter in the horse, but studies showing SAA responses to specific respiratory disease etiologies are limited. The goal of this study was to evaluate SAA responses in horses with infectious and noninfectious respiratory diseases as well as healthy, control horses. Two hundred seven horses were grouped into the following categories: equine influenza virus (EIV), equine herpesvirus-4 (EHV-4), Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi ss equi), inflammatory airway disease (IAD), and healthy controls. Serum amyloid A concentrations were determined for all horses on serum using a stall-side lateral flow immunoassay test. Serum amyloid A levels were found to be significantly greater for infectious respiratory diseases (EIV, EHV-4, S. equi ss equi) and horses with IAD when compared to control horses. There was a significant difference between viral and bacterial infections and IAD. Although SAA values from horses with S. equi ss equi were significantly greater when compared to horses with viral infections (EIV/EHV-4), the wide range of SAA values precluded accurate classification of the infectious cases. In conclusion, SAA is more reliably elevated with infections of the respiratory tract rather than noninfectious airway conditions. This can facilitate early detection of respiratory infections, help track disease progression, and aid practitioners in making recommendations about proper biosecurity and isolation of potentially contagious horses.

Serum and Synovial Fluid Serum Amyloid A Response in Equine Models of Synovitis and Septic Arthritis

Authored by: Elsa K. Ludwig1 , R. Brandon Wiese1 , Megan R. Graham1 , Amelia J. Tyler1 , Julie M. Settlage1 , Ste on Friday, April 1, 2016

Objective: To investigate the serum and synovial fluid serum amyloid A (SAA) response in equine models of synovitis and septic arthritis and to compare handheld and validated immunoturbidometric assays for SAA quantification. Study Design: Controlled, experimental study. Animals: Healthy adult horses (n 5 9). Methods: Synovitis (n 5 4) and septic arthritis (n 5 5) were induced using lipopolysaccharide and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively, and serial serum and synovial fluid samples were collected. Serial synovial fluid cytology was performed for both models and synovial fluid from the septic arthritis model was submitted for bacterial culture. Serum and synovial fluid SAA were quantified by handheld test and immunoturbidometric assay. Cytologic and SAA data were compared within and between models (mixed model ANOVA) and results of SAA assays were compared using category-by-category analysis (weighted kappa coefficient). Results: Synovial fluid total nucleated cell counts and total protein increased significantly following induction of both models. Serum and synovial fluid SAA remained normal in synovitis horses and increased significantly in septic arthritis horses. Serum SAA increased more rapidly than synovial fluid SAA. Agreement was 98% when SAA concentrations were low (​

Multi Radiance Research Series - ACTIVet PRO™ Laser White Paper

Authored by: Ernesto Leal-Junior Ph.D, PT Douglas S. Johnson, ATC, EES, CLS on Sunday, January 31, 2016

Multi Radiance Research Series
ACTIVet PRO™ Laser White Paper

Clinical Assessment of a Point-of-Care Serum Amyloid A Assay in Foals with Bronchopneumonia

Authored by: S. Giguere, L.J. Berghaus, and C.D. Miller on Friday, January 1, 2016

Background: Despite the paucity of data available, stall-side serum amyloid (SAA) assays are commonly used to make diagnostic and treatment decisions in foals with bronchopneumonia. Hypothesis: Measurement of SAA concentrations can accurately differentiate pneumonic from healthy foals. Animals: Fifty-four pneumonic foals between 3 weeks and 5 months of age were compared to 44 healthy controls. In addition, 47 foals on a farm endemic for R. equi infections were studied. Methods: Serum samples were collected from pneumonic foals at hospital admission. Foals were categorized as having pneumonia caused by R. equi or by other microorganisms based on culture of a tracheobronchial aspirate. In addition, serum samples were obtained at 2-week intervals from foals born at a farm endemic for R. equi. SAA concentrations were measured by a point-of-care assay. Diagnostic performance of SAA was assessed by use of receiver operating characteristic curves. Results: Concentrations of SAA in foals with bronchopneumonia were significantly (P < 0.001) higher than those of healthy foals, but 15 of 54 pneumonic foals (28%) had SAA concentrations ​

Phototherapy in skeletal muscle performance and recovery after exercise: Comparison between three different devices commercially available.

Authored by: Thiago De Marchi,1 Vinicius Mazzochi Schmitt,2 Carla Danúbia da Silva Fabro,1 Larissa Lopes da Silva on Wednesday, December 31, 2014

Phototherapy in skeletal muscle performance and recovery after exercise: Comparison between three different devices commercially available.

Allogenic Mesenchymal Stem Cells as a Treatment for Equine Degenerative Joint Disease: A Pilot Study

Authored by: Sarah Broeckx1, Marc Suls2, Charlotte Beerts1, Aurélie Vandenberghe2, Bert Seys2, Karin Wuertz-Kozak on Sunday, August 3, 2014

Cell-based therapies, such as treatments with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP)

are thought to have beneficial effects on the clinical outcome of orthopedic injuries, but very few animal studies with large

sample size are published so far. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the safety and report the clinical outcome

of allogenic, immature or chondrogenic induced MSCs in combination with PRP for the treatment of degenerative joint

disease (DJD) in 165 horses.

Intravenous Application of Allogenic Peripheral Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Safety Assessment in 291 Equine Recipients

Authored by: Sarah Broeckx1,#, Bizunesh M Borena2,3,#, Marieke Zimmerman4, Tom Mariën4, Bert Seys5, Marc Suls5, L on Tuesday, February 18, 2014

It has been reported that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have homing capacities and immunomodulating effects after an intravenous injection. However, transplanting MSCs in murine tail veins can result in pulmonary reactions and even death of the animals. Unfortunately, only a few intravenous MSC transplantations have been reported in large animal species and these were performed in a limited number of individuals. To assess the safety of MSC transplantations, a large study on 291 recipient horses is reported here. MSCs were isolated from the peripheral blood (PB) of a 4-year-old and 6-year-old donor horse after having tested their PB for a wide range of transmittable diseases. The MSC samples from both donor horses were characterized and resuspended in 1ml of Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO). After hand-thawing in the field, 291 horses with ages ranging from 3-months to 33-years were directly injected into their jugular vein. 281 horses (97%) received a single injection of a physiological dose of 0.2 x106 MSCs, 5 horses (1.7%) were re-injected after approximately 6 weeks (using the same dose and donor cells) and a single superphysiological dose of 106 MSCs was administered to 5 horses as well. In total, 176 recipients were injected with MSCs from the 4-year-old donor and 115 recipients received MSCs from the 6-year-old donor. From all the injected horses (n=291) no acute clinical adverse effects were noticed. Apart from one horse that died of colic 7 months after the treatment, no deaths were registered and all the horses were monitored for 1 year after the injection. In conclusion, no adverse effects were noticed in 291 recipients after an intravenous injection of allogenic PBderived MSCs. Nevertheless, further research is warranted in order to verify the immunogenic properties of these cells after allogenic transplantation into various (patho)physiological sites.

Non-invasive assessment of equine muscular function: A case study

Authored by: K.H. Riis, A.P. Harrison, and K. Riis-Olesen on Saturday, December 7, 2013

Assessment of muscle function after an injury or during recovery is of great importance in the veterinary field. Accelerometry, bioimpedance analysis and mechanomyography/acoustic myography have been used to assess human muscular problems, but have not been applied to the veterinary clinic. We report the clinical use of these techniques in a 12-year-old Danish Warmblood horse presenting with recurring and shifting lameness. Acoustic myography, assessing both the amplitude and frequency of active muscles, was employed to locate the specific area of muscle injury, the right hip, which exhibited minimal fibre recruitment giving rise to considerable weakness. This specific region was assessed by accelerometry which revealed a normal step interval for the injured leg when compared with the contralateral, but a weaker acceleration and strike force. Finally, an assessment of muscle resistance (R) and reactance (Xc) using bioimpedance confirmed a regional loss of muscle mass and a loss of cellular integrity compared with the contralateral limb. Keywords: Accelerometry, Acoustic myography, Bioimpedance analysis, Lameness.

Assessment of serum amyloid A testing of horses and its clinical application in a specialized equine practice

Authored by: Rodney L. Belgrave, DVM, MS, DACVIM; Meranda M. Dickey, BS; Kristopher L. Arheart, EdD; Carolyn Cray on Monday, July 1, 2013

Objective—To compare serum amyloid A (SAA) concentration, plasma fibrinogen concentration, total WBC count, and serum albumin-to-globulin concentration ratio (A:G ratio) in clinically normal (CN) and clinically abnormal (CA) horses. Design—Prospective cohort study. Animals—111 CN horses and 101 CA horses hospitalized at a specialty clinical practice. Procedures—Shortly after admission, a blood sample (20 mL) was collected from each horse for a CBC, serum protein electrophoresis, and determination of plasma fibrinogen concentration; SAA concentration was assessed with a previously validated immunoturbidometric assay. Similar testing of a subset of CA horses was conducted at various points during treatment. Results—Total WBC count, A:G ratio, and SAA concentration were determined for all 212 horses; data regarding plasma fibrinogen concentration were available for 127 horses (of which 47 were CN and 80 were CA). Median SAA concentration, total WBC count, and plasma fibrinogen concentration and mean A:G ratio differed significantly between CN horses and CA horses. Correlations between these variables were poor to weak. For discrimination of CN horses from CA horses, the SAA assay had sensitivity of 53% and specificity of 94% (diagnostic accuracy, 75%); for the other assessments, accuracy ranged from 59% to 62%. Repeated assessment of SAA concentration in some CA horses revealed a gradual return to normal concentrations. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that assessment of SAA concentration can provide valuable information regarding the clinical state of horses and may be more useful for patient monitoring and as a prognostic indicator than are traditional markers of inflammation. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2013;243:113–119)

Evaluation of the effect of extracorporeal shock wave treatment on experimentally induced osteoarthritis in middle carpal joints of horses

Authored by: David D. Frisbie, DVM, PhD; Christopher E. Kawcak, DVM, PhD; C. Wayne McIlwraith, BVSc, PhD on Wednesday, April 1, 2009

Evaluation of the effect of extracorporeal shock wave treatment on experimentally induced osteoarthritis in middle carpal joints of horses.

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy for Treatment of Navicular Syndrome

Authored by: Scott McClure, DVM, PhD; Richard B. Evans, PhD; Kristina G. Miles, DVM; Eric L. Reinertson, DVM, MS; on Friday, December 31, 2004

Extracorporeal shock wave therapy was effective in decreasing the lameness associated with navicular syndrome in 81% of the horses as determined by an unmasked evaluator and in 56% of the horses with masked evaluators.


Authored by: S. R. MCCLURE,** D. VANSICKLE, ‡ R. EVANS, † E. L. REINERTSON* and L. MORAN* on Friday, December 31, 2004

Abstract—Extracorporeal shock-wave therapy (ESWT) may stimulate healing of desmitis in multiple species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ultrasonographic and histologic appearance of collagenase-induced suspensory ligament (SUL) desmitis in untreated ligaments and ligaments treated with ESWT in horses